HLA-G: Su importancia inmunológica

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Verónica Rincón Edwin Manrique

Resumen

HLA-G es una molécula clase I no clásica (Ib) del Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad Humano (CMH), adopta siete isoformas, resultado del empalme alternativo de un mismo RNA inmaduro, cuatro se encuentran ligadas a la membrana (HLA-G1,-G2, -G3, -G4) y las otras tres formas son solubles (HLA-G5, - G6, -G7), teniendo en común el dominio extracelular a1. Se expresa de forma selectiva en la interfase materno fetal desempeñando un papel crucial en la inducción de un estado de tolerancia del feto semialogénico por el sistema inmune materno. Está molécula inhibe la citólisis de las NK mediante la interacción con uno o varios receptores inhibidores presentes en las NK (KIR), presenta un limitado polimorfismo, se han descrito 15 alelos, 14 de los cuales asignados por la nomenclatura del HLA. El HLA-G está asociado con algunas patologías en la gestación, tales como las infecciones intrauterinas; pre-eclampsia y en aborto recurrente espontáneo. Los estudios van dirigidos a controlar mejor las interacciones HLA-G/células NK en la inducción de un estado de tolerancia inmunitaria en el campo del transplante y la inmunología de los tumores.

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